Various forging techniques used in manufacturing

by Walter Smith

The metal shaping process which uses compressive and localized forces to achieve desired metal shapes is known as forging. Forging is one of the oldest metal fabrication techniques in the world. The forging industry has experienced a lot of changes since its origin. Today forging techniques are faster and more efficient due to advanced electrically, hydraulically, or pneumatically powered equipment. Some of the materials well-suited for forging are aluminum, carbon steel, titanium, and alloy steel. Below is a detailed description of the types of forging techniques like hot die forging. It will help you understand them better

Forging Types

When making forged parts, manufacturers can use any of the following processes:

  • Cold Forging
  • Impression Die Forging
  • Open Die Forging

1. Impression Die Forging

Most manufacturers use this technique, also called closed die forging, to create parts. Manufacturers can form an unlimited number of 3-D metal shapes and develop the simplest shapes like spheres and disc-like configurations. Additionally, you can use the technique to create complex parts. In this method, the expert places the metal between two dies with precut profiles of the desired shape. The dies are then pressed together to deform the metal. The die contours restrict metal flow; therefore, the process yields complex shapes with low tolerances.

Moreover, the method is flexible when creating symmetrical and unsymmetrical shapes. Plus, you can bend or curve parts in more than one plane to get the ideal configurations. When forging temperature-sensitive materials such as refractory alloys, you may need to use sophisticated machines.

2. Cold Forging

Cold forging varies from the die forging process. It is a metal shaping process in which a specialist inserts a bar stock into a die and squeezes it into a closed die. While hot forging is done at over 2300 degrees Fahrenheit, this technique is done at room temperature or below the material’s recrystallization temperature.

Cold forging is an efficient method that encompasses multiple processes like bending, cold heading, extrusions, and cold drawing to form a variety of shapes. The technique is ideal for manufacturing high volumes of materials at a lower price. Depending on your needs, the experts may pass the workpiece through several dies to get the correct shape.

Lower-alloy and carbon steels are some of the perfect materials for the cold forging process. At times, forgers may prefer warm forging over cold forging when dealing with steel with higher carbon grades.

3. Open Die Forging

Open die forging is when the metal is reshaped between several flat-faced dies that lack precut profiles. As the die hammers the piece of metal through various movements, the metal attains its desired shape. Materials formed through this process require secondary machining to refine them and achieve the proper tolerances. The open-die process is used to forge many materials, including ferrous and non-ferrous alloys and age-hardening alloys.

In addition to basic shapes like round and rectangular, the process can also form step shafts, cylindrical hollows, and ring-like components. Open die forging also produces fatigue-resistant materials with increased grain structure strength.


The article outlines the different types of forging processes to provide a basic understanding of how forging parts are produced. Manufacturers can select a suitable method depending on their applications.

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